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Literacy Models

Last Updated: 8/23/2021 2:07 PM

Major Models in Ohio's Plan

Simple View of Reading

The Simple View of Reading is a formula based on a widely accepted view that reading includes two basic components: word recognition (decoding) and language comprehension. 

simple view of reading

The Reading Rope

Reading Rope

Scarborough’s Reading Rope consists of lower and upper strands. The lower or bottom strand is the word recognition strands, which consists of phonological awareness, decoding, and sight recognition of familiar words. These are foundational skills that work together to help the reader become accurate, fluent, and increasingly automatic with repetition and practice. Concurrently, the upper strand of the language comprehension strands, which consists of background knowledge, vocabulary, language structures, verbal reasoning, and literacy knowledge, reinforce one another. The lower and upper strands weave together to create a skilled reader. This weaving does not happen overnight but requires instruction and practice over time (International Dyslexia Association, 2018).

Including All Learners in the Language and Literacy Development Continuum

Language and literacy develop along a continuum.  Starting at birth, children develop skills and move through and between the phases of emergent, early, conventional and adolescent language and literacy.  Ohio’s vision and plan include all learners in all phases of language and literacy development, regardless of age or grade, and presumes competence for all learners.


literacy development continuum


five components of reading

Four-Part Processor

four part processor

The Four-Part Processor provides a model as to the processes involved in decoding unfamiliar words. The 4 parts of the model are the Phonological Processor, the Orthographic Processor, the Meaning Processor, and the Context Processor. The processors undertake the language work in different areas within the left hemisphere of the brain. The 4-part Processor allows the reader to decode and appropriately understand words in text. Knowing about the 4-Part Processor helps teachers provide explicit, sequential, systematic decoding instruction (Stowe, M.M., 2016).

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